The Role of Local residents in Safeguarding Cultural Heritage Sites: Aqaba City, Jordan


  • Dr. Lama'a Mahmoud Al-Orainat PhD. Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ministry of Education, Jordan



Heritage, Heritage Cultural, Safeguarding


As a result of the global interest of the cultural heritage sites lay great significance on the residents' role in safeguarding the cultural heritage. Due to this interest, the importance of safeguarding the cultural heritage sites become the most important element of the development plans. The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of safeguarding the cultural heritage sites, the essential role of local resident and the government to safeguard their heritage and culture. Also, to review the perceptions and opinions of 40 respondents living in the investigated site, who were raised by the presence of these cultural sites, through the method of problem-centred interviews according to witzel (1982), which can summarize as: brief questionnaire, dialogue guideline, audio recording, and postscript. The results of the study highlighted the crucial need of involving and participation the local residents in safeguarding their cultural heritage. Besides, the need for greater public awareness and education in safeguarding cultural heritage, the government should involve the local residents in the planning and implementation projects which attend to safeguard the city’s cultural heritage.


Download data is not yet available.


Agnew, J. (2011): Space and Place. Handbook of geographical knowledge, 2011, 316-331.‏

Ashworth, G.J. (1997): ‘Struggling to control the past’, In Focus 22:4–5.

Baycan, T., & Girard, L. F. (2011): Heritage in socio-economic development: direct and indirect impacts. COMOS 17th General Assembly, 857-860.‏

Benton, T (ed.) (2010): Understanding Heritage and Memory (Understanding Global Heritage) Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Bohland, J. D., & Hague, E. (2009): Heritage and Identity.

‏Brehm, J. M. (2007): Community attachment: The complexity and consequence of the natural environment facet. Human Ecology, 35(4), 477-488.‏

Cominelli, F., & Greffe, X. (2012): Intangible cultural heritage: Safeguarding for creativity. City, Culture and Society, 3(4), 245-250.‏

Douglas, N. (2004): Towards a history of tourism in Solomon Islands. The Journal of Pacific Studies, 26(1-2), 29-49.‏

Dümcke, C., & Gnedovsky, M. (2013): The social and economic value of cultural heritage: literature review. EENC paper, 1-114.‏

Fitri, I., Ahmad, Y., & Ahmad, F. (2015): Conservation of tangible cultural heritage in Indonesia: a review current national criterion for assessing heritage value. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 184, 71-78.

Herting, J. R., & Guest, A. M. (1985): Components of satisfaction with local areas in the metropolis. The Sociological Quarterly, 26(1), 99-116.‏

Greffe, X. (2012): Concept study on the role of Cultural Heritage as the fourth pillar of Sustainable Development, Venice: Sustcult project, pp.73.

Gubrium, J.F. (2002): Handbook of interview research: Context & Method. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.

Harrison, D., & Hitchcock, M. (2005): The politics of world heritage: Negotiating tourism and conservation. Channel View Publications.‏

‏ Hejazeen, E. (2006): Tourism and Local Communities in Jordan: Perception, Attitudes and Impacts. Eichstätt: Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt.

Hobson, E. (2004): Conservation Planning. Changing Values in Policy and Practice. London: Spon Press.

ICOMOS (1964): Venice Charter. Venice.

ICOMOS (1990): Charter for the protection and management of the archaeological heritage. Lausanne.

Kurin, R. (2004): Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in the 2003 UNESCO Convention: a critical appraisal. Museum international, 56(1‐2), 66-77.‏

Kurin, R. (2007): Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage: Key factors in implementing the 2003 Convention. International journal of intangible heritage, 2(8), 9-20.‏

Kuusisto, A. K. (1999): Politics of place and resistance: the case of Northern Ireland. Journal, Nordia Geographi cal Publications, NGP, Yearbook, 28(2).

Leeman, J., Rabin, L., & Román-Mendoza, E. (2011): Identity and activism in heritage language education. Modern Language Journal, 95, 481–495.

Masser, I., Sviden, O. and Wegener, M. (1994): ‘What new heritage for which new Europe’ in G.J.Ashworth and P.J.Larkham (eds) Building a New Heritage: Tourism, Culture and Identity in the New Europe, London: Routledge.

Mateja, S. H., David, B., Primoz, Pipan. (2015): Sustainable Heritage Management: Social, Economic and Other Potentials of Culture in Local Development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 188, 103–110.

McLean, F. (2006): Introduction. Heritage and identity. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 12(1), 3-7.‏

Millar, P. (1995): ‘Heritage management for heritage tourism’ in S.Medlik (ed.) Managing Tourism, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann (second edition).

Nuryanti, W. (1996): Heritage and Postmodern tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), 249-260.

O’Connor, Z, (2011): Valuation of cultural heritage: Toward a conceptual model and potential evaluation strategies, EDRA 42: 42nd Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA). McLean, VA, USA.

Reinius, S. W., & Fredman, P. (2007): Protected areas as attractions. Annals of tourism research, 34(4), 839-854.‏

Ribašauskienė, E., & Šumylė, D. (2016): The role of traditional craft centers in safeguarding cultural heritage. Vadybos mokslas ir studijos-kaimo verslų ir jų infrastruktūros plėtrai, 38(4), 412-424.

Rudolff, B. (2010): Intangible and tangible heritage: A topology of culture in contexts of faith.‏

Smith, L. (2006): Uses of heritage. London and New York: Routledge.‏

Spiridon, P., & Sandu, I. (2015): Conservation of cultural heritage: from participation to collaboration. ENCATC Journal of Cultural Management and Policy, 5(1), 43-52.

Timothy, D. J., & Boyd, S. W. (2006): Heritage tourism in the 21st century: Valued traditions and new perspectives. Journal of heritage tourism, 1(1), 1-16.‏

UNESCO (2002): The Budapest Declaration on World Heritage. Budapest.

UNESCO (2003): The Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Van Deursen, R. E., & Raaphorst, W. F. (2014): Proud to be Dogon: An exploration of the local perspective on cultural tourism and cultural heritage management in Dogon country, Mali. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 14(1-2), 67-80.

‏Vecco, M. (2010): A definition of cultural heritage: From the tangible to the intangible. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 11(3), 321-324.‏

Velani, F., & Rosati, C. (2012): La magna charta del volontariato per i beni culturali. Dal progetto alla convenzione tipo, Firenze, Centro Servizi Volontariato Toscana, 15.

‏Zeppel, H. & Hall, C. (1992): Arts and heritage tourism. In Weiler, B. & Hall, C. (eds.) Special Interest Tourism. London: Belhaven, pp.47-68.




How to Cite

Al-Orainat, D. L. M. (2022). The Role of Local residents in Safeguarding Cultural Heritage Sites: Aqaba City, Jordan. Journal of Social Sciences (COES&Amp;RJ-JSS), 11(3), 93.101.