Female Empowerment: The implications for democracy and development in Nigeria


  • Mrs. Josephine Azuka Onyido, Dr. Department of Educational Foundation Faculty of Education University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria




Female Empowerment, Democracy, Societal Development


Democracy is a system of government that seeks to involve, entrench and demand the participation of all stakeholders. It seeks to bring about societal development through equal participation of stakeholders in infrastructural and economic development. The Nigerian democratic experience has been plagued by interruptions by military regimes, political violence, corruption and notably the discrimination and marginalization of women. This therefore, is not the essence and purpose of democracy and consequently affects the development of the society, economy to mention a few. Hence, to attain equal stakeholder’s participation with a view to eradicating these challenges there is need, for female empowerment to be encouraged so as to stimulate participation and decision making in the democratic terrain. This paper therefore, seeks to critically analyze and discuss the effect of female empowerment on the Nigerian democratic experience. It highlights the importance of gender/female empowerment and history of the Nigerian democratic experience, while stressing the importance of gender empowerment for democratic stability and societal development. It finally concludes that addressing female/gender empowerment and tackling the challenges of women participation in politics would go a long way in ensuring democratic stability and entrenching democracy in Nigeria.


Download data is not yet available.


Adeyemo. A. (2009). Paris, Gains of a Decade of Democracy, This Day Newspaper, May 29, p.25

Agbalajobi, D. T. (2010) “Women’s Participation and the Political Process in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects” African Journal of Political Science and International Relations Vol. 4(2): 75-82.

Akpalaobi, B. N. (2011) “The Dynamics of Sexual Politics in Nigeria: A Catalyst for Gender Bias” Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies Vol. 2(6): 471-478.

Allen, F. (2009). From “Authoritarian Rule” to “Democracy” in Nigeria: Citizens’ Welfare a Myth or Reality. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 1(2), 152-192.

Asaju, K. and Adagba, S. O. (2013) “Women Participation in National Development in Nigeria: Imperative of Education” Journal of Public Administration and Governance Vol. 3(1): 57-69.

British Council (2012) Gender in Nigeria Report: Improving the Lives of Girls and Women in Nigeria Issues, Policies, Action. 2nd Edition.

Chiejina, O. (2011) “Women and Politics in Nigeria” Journal of Research and Development Vol. 3(1): 159-164.

Dike, F. I. (2012) Nigeria: Enhancing Women Participation in Politics and Governance, Matters Arising Jabi, Abuja: Fairdeal Press Ltd.

Elaigwu, J. J. (2005). “Crises and Conflicts Management in Nigeria Since 1980” in Yakubu, A.M.,

Fabiyi, O. (2015). PDP Ask IGP to probe attacks on Imo Widows, Punch Newspaper, February 22. Accessed Online [http://www.punchng.com/news/pdp-asks-igp-to-probe-attacks-on-imo-widows/

Fasoro, J.O. (2015) “Patronage and Tokenism: The Bane of Gender Justice in Nigeria” International Journal of Arts and Commerce. Vol. 4(2).

Gouws, A., & Shireen, H., (2011), The Power to Change: Women’s Participation and Representation in Africa, Background Paper Prepared for HBS Engendering Leadership Project, Kapstadt: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Index Mundi: Nigeria Demographics Profile 2014. Accessed Online on the 2nd of January 2015 from[ http://www.indexmundi.com/nigeria/demographics_profile.html]

Kolawale, T. O., Abubakar, M. B., Owonibi, E. and Adebayo, A. A. (2012) “Gender and Party Politics in Africa with Reference to Nigeria” Online Journal of Education Research Vol. 1(7): 132-144

Luka, R. C. (2011). Women and political participation in Nigeria: The imperatives of empowerment. Journal of social sciences and public policy, Vol.3, 24-37.

Mohammed, B. T. and Abduquadri, A. F. (2012) “Comparative Analysis of Gender involvement in Agricultural Production in Nigeria” Journal of Development and
Agricultural Economics Vol. 4(8): 240-244.

Muoghalu, C. O. and Abrifor, C. A. (2012) “Urban Poor Women and Governance in Nigeria” European Scientific Journal Vol. 8(5): 176-185.

Naake, Anthony Y (2004), “Breaking the Silence about Domestic Violence: Communication for Development in Northwestern Ghana”, Gender and Behaviour, volume 4 number 2, pp. 782 – 794.

Nelson, E. E. (2012) “Democracy and the Struggle for Political Empowerment of Women in Nigeria” International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance Vol. 3(1): 85-99.

Ngara, C. O., & Ayabam, A. T. (2013). Women in politics and decision-making in Nigeria:Challenges and prospects. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(8), 47-58.

Oghale, E. Women leadership and its relevance to National Development in the 21st Century: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities www.ajol.info › Journal Home › Vol 15, No 2 (2014)

Okoronkwo, C. C. (2001) Gender Inequalities in Nigerian Politics Dissertation in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Corporate and Public Communication, Seton Hall University.

Okoronkwo-Chukwu, U. (2013). Female Representation in Nigeria: The Case of The 2011 General Elections And The Fallacy Of 35% Affirmative Action. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(2), 39-46.

Okpilike, F. M. E. and Abamba, G. O (2013) “Sociological Explanations of Male Dominance in Nigerian Party Politics: Implications for Education” British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science Vol. 3(2): 154-162.

Onwubiko, C. P. C. (2012) “Empowerment of Nigerian Women towards National Development” Journal of Resourcefulness and Distinction Vol. 2 (1): 68-78.

Samuel, O. and Segun, J. (2012) “Gender Relations in Nigeria’s Democratic Governance” Journal of Politics and Governance Vol. 1(2/3): 4-15.

Segun, J. (2013). Democracy and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications for National Development An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 7 (3), Serial No. 30, July, 2013.

Sodaro, M. J. (2001). Comparative Politics A Global Introduction, New York: McGraw-Hill

Tashi (2000) “The Potentials of Women in Political Development: The Case of Plateau State” Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Vol. 2(1): 95-106.

Umar, M. Z. & Abdullahi, A. (2007). Women Empowerment And Nigerias Development: Perspectives, Challenges And Prospects. Journal of Research in National Development. Vol. 5, No. 2.

Yahaya, A. (2012) “Muslim Women and Political Participation in Nigeria” Paper Presented at the Nigerian Muslim and Democracy Conference Abuja.




How to Cite

Onyido, M. J. A. (2016). Female Empowerment: The implications for democracy and development in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences (COES&Amp;RJ-JSS), 5(2), 96–103. https://doi.org/10.25255/jss.2016.




Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.