The evolution of the doctrine of the infallibility of the Pope in the Catholic beliefs. "An historical contract study"
This study examines the history of the development of the doctrine of infallibility of the Pope (Bishop of Rome) in the Catholic Church, from the Middle Ages to its adoption as a dogmatic constitution, to shed light on the impact of the course of historical events on the crystallization of this doctrine and the conceptual structure upon which it was based.
The study concluded that the doctrine of infallibility of the Pope was based on the concept of the Peter theory, and it went through several stages, the most prominent of which was the period of turbulence in the Middle Ages, and criticism in the modern era, and a series of historical events in the nineteenth century contributed to the siege of the papal seat, which prompted Pius The ninth to endorsing the doctrine of infallibility of the Pope to confront these criticisms in the first Vatican Council in 1870 AD, by defining the concept of infallibility in the context of faith education and ethics, and this decision was emphasized in the Second Vatican Council in 1964 AD, but in more detail.
Abu Zahra, Muhammad, Lectures in Christianity, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, Beirut, 3rd ed, 1966.
Babawi, William Wahba and others, Department of Biblical Knowledge, Dar al- Thaqafa, Cairo,1st ed , 1990.
Al-Barmusi, Hermina, The Holy Spirit: Biblical and Parental Views, Dyr al- Sayida al- 'adhra', 1rd ed, 2009.
Bustris, Salim, Christian Theology and Contemporary Man, Manshurat al- Maktaba al- Bulisiyya,Beirut - Junih - Zahla, 3rd ed, 2002.
Al-Jurjani, Ali bin Muhammad (d: 816 AH), al- Ta'rifat, (set and corrected by a group of scholars under the supervision of the publisher), Dar al-Kutub al-'ilmiya, Beirut, 1rd ed, 1983.
Hanafi, Hassan, The Evolution of Western Religious Thought: Fundamentals and Applications, Dar al-Hadi li al- Tiba'a wa al- Nashir, Beirut,1st ed , 2004.
Dyurant, Wil, The Story of Civilization, Dar al-Jeel /Gami'at al- Luga al- 'arabiya, Beirut- Tunisia, No date.
Rashid, 'ismat, Modern History of Europe, Cairo, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, without edition, No date.
Al-Sawah, Firas, Encyclopedia of the History of Religions, (Translated by Abd al-Razzaq Ali, Mahmud Al-Hashemi), 4th ed , 2017.
Al-Shridah, Ahmed Turki, The Rise and Development of the Papacy, Journal Studies of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Jordan, 2018, Volume 45 / Supplement,p: (402-391).
Sa'b, Adib, Living Religions: Their Origin and Evolution, Dar al-Nahar li al- Nashir, Beirut, 3rd ed , 2005.
Tarabishi, Gurge, Glossary of Philosophers, Dar Al-Tali'ah li al- tiba'a wa al- nashir, Beirut, 3rd ed , 2006.
Ashur, Sa'id, Medieval Europe, maktabat al- 'angilo al- misriya, Egypt, 3rd ed , 1964.
Abd al- Hamid, 'irfan, Christianity: its historical origins and the origins of its tenets, Dar 'ammar li al- nnashr, Amman,1rd ed , 2000.
Ali, Kaban, Religious Reform in Christianity compared to Intellectual Reform in Islam, Dar Digla, 1rd ed , 2010.
Al-Qarawashi, Hasan, Christian Catholic thought in the face of modernity from the first Vatican Council to the second Vatican Council, without edition, No date.
Cambi, Jan, A Guide to Reading the History of the Church, Dar Al-Shoruk, Beirut, 1rd ed , 1994.
Langlir, William, Encyclopedia of World History, (supervised by translation: Muhammad Mustafa Zyadah), Dar al- Nahda al- misryya, Cairo, 1959.
Naggar, Nuha, Encyclopedia of Heavenly and Faithful Religions, Dar al- Fikr al- Lubnani, 1rd ed , 1995.
Hobbsbawm, Eric, The Age of the Revolution (1789-1848), (translation: Fayez Al-Sayyagh), al- Munazama al- 'arabiya Li al- Targama, 2rd ed , 2008.
Document of the Second Vatican Council, Fifth Session: November 21/1964, entitled: A Dogmatic Constitution in the Church, Chapter Three: In the System of Ecclesiastical Authority Particularly in the Episcopate, Paragraph 25. The document was downloaded by the website: https: // coptcatholic.net
Wahba, Murad, The Philosophical Dictionary, Dar Quba' al-Haditha, Cairo, without edition, 2007.
A l- Yaso'y, Father Subhi, Lexicon of Christian Faith, Dar Al-Mashriq, Beirut, 2rd ed , 1998.
Yusif, Joseph, Studies in the History of the Middle Ages, Mu'asasat Dar Shabab al- Gami'a, Alexandria, Without edition.
Al-Youssef, Abd al- Qadir, The European Middle Ages (476 AD - 1500 CE), al- Maktaba al-'asriya, Beirut, Without Edition, 1967.
Youssef, Mohamed, Encyclopedia of Christian Beliefs and Doctrines, al- Dar al- 'alamiya li al- kutub wa al- Nashir, Egypt, 1st ed, No date.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.