Managerial Efficiency Modeling of Water use in the Republic of Lebanon
Keywords:Water, Water budget, Lebanon, Water Scarcity, efficient water utilization
Lebanon is one of the few countries in the Middle East with adequate water. Rainfall is relatively plentiful and the country is blessed by several large rivers. But when the residents of Beirut and its surrounding suburbs turn on their water taps, most of the time, nothing trickles out. In summertime, the water supply can be as little as three hours per day for many households, Government negligence, waste water mismanagement, and sanitations are the most problems of the shortage of water in Lebanon.
This paper presents a detailed study of the water situation in Lebanon, as the water shortage is a serious problem that affects the life of Lebanese citizens, presented in this paper a detailed budgeting system for the water in Lebanon by measuring incomes from rains, rivers, snow, outcomes from sanitation, waste water, and mismanagement .
This paper depends on secondary data as published reports, statistics, and studies by Lebanese governmental agencies, as well as on the Lebanese water strategic planning program of 2010 of the Ministry of Water and Power that helps define different aspects of this research.
This paper focuses on the generation of solutions in the near future and the long term as well, and discusses briefly the Lebanese situation using analyzed data. Moreover, the paper’s outcome is cast into a water budget which gives a future prospect for the water situation in Lebanon, and it indicates ways and means to overcome the water shortage in the country.
Amer, M.H. (1999). Egypt’s water vision for the 21st century. World Water Council/GWP, World Water Vision - water for food, contribution of experts, 27-29 May, Bari, Italy. Egypt, Ministry of Public Works. 31 pp.
Baumgartner, A. & Reichel, E. (1975). The world water balance. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and New York, USA, Elsevier. 179 pp. + 31 maps.
Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière (BRGM). (1990). Les eaux souterraines dans le monde. France.
Europea. (2000, October) Madrid, Minist. de Fomento, Minist. de Medio Ambiente, Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Pubblicas/CEDEX, p.239.
Eurostat. (2001). Water resources, abstraction and use in European countries. Statistics in focus - Theme 8 - 6/2001.
FAO. (1987). Irrigated areas in Africa: extent and distribution. FAO report AGL/MISC13/87. Rome. 127 pp. + map.
FAO. (1996). Georeferenced database on African dams. Rome. Unpublished report and Excel files.
FAO. (1997). Irrigation potential in Africa - a basin approach. FAO Land and Water Bulletin No. 4. Rome. 177 pp.
FAO. (1997). Irrigation in the Near East region in figures. Water Report No. 9. Rome.
FAO. (1997). Water resources in the Near East region: a review. Rome. 35 pp.
FAO. (1999). Irrigation in Asia in figures. Water Report No. 18. Rome.
FAO/FAOSTAT. Online database available returned November 20, 2010, from http://apps.fao.org/page/collections?subset=agriculture.
Gleick, P.H. (1993). Water in crisis. A guide to the world’s freshwater resources. New York/London, Oxford University Press. 474 pp.
Gleick, P.H. (1998). The world’s water 1998-1999. Washington, DC, Island Press.
Gleick, P.H. (2000). The world’s water 2000-2001, the biennial report on freshwater resources. Washington, DC, Island Press.
Hamdar,B.(2014).Lebanon’s Water Resources. A guide to the distribution of water resources among the different sectors of the country. An Naher news (Arabic text) issue no.04Aug.
International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID). (2000). Draft ICID strategy for implementing sector vision, water for food and rural development and country position paper. ICID Golden Jubilee Year 1999-2000.
International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD). (1989). World register of dams, 1985 update. Registre mondial des barrages, mise à jour 1988. Paris.
Korzun, V.I., Sokolov, A.A., Budyko, M.I., Voskresensky, K.P., Kalinin, G.P., Konoplyantsev, A.A., Korotkevich, E.S. & L’vovitch, M. I., eds. (1974). Atlas of world water balance. USSR National Committee for the International Hydrological Decade. English translation. Paris, UNESCO. 35 pp. + 65 maps.
Korzun, V.I., Sokolov, A.A., Budyko, M.I., Voskresensky, K.P., Kalinin, G.P., Konoplyantsev, A.A., Korotkevich, E.S. & L’vovitch, M. I., eds. (1978). Atlas of world water balance. USSR National Committee for the International Hydrological Decade. English translation. Paris, UNESCO. 663 pp.
Leemans, R. & Cramer, W. (1991). The IIASA database for mean monthly values of temperature, precipitation and cloudiness on a global terrestrial grid. Research Report RR-91-18. November 1991. Laxenburg, Austria, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis.
Margat, J & Vallée, D. (2000). Blue Plan - Mediterranean vision on water, population and the environment for the 21st century. Sophia Antipolis, France. 62 pp.
Ministry of Water and Power (MWP). (2010). Lebanese Water Strategic Planning: Implication for Efficient Water Planning. Beirut, Lebanon.
Mitchell, T.D., Hulme, M. & New, M. (2002). Climate data for political areas. Area, 34: 109-112. (also available at http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk/).
New, M., Hulme, M. & Jones, P. (1999). Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part I: development of a 1961-90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J. Clim. 12. 829-856 (also available at http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk/).
OECD. (1993). OECD environmental data compendium. Parts 1 & 3. Paris.
OECD. (1999). OECD environmental data 1999. Parts 1 & 3. Paris.
Raskin, P. (1997). Water futures: assessment of long range patterns and problems. In Comprehensive assessment of the freshwater resources of the world. Stockholm, Stockholm Environment Institute.
UNESCO. (1995). Discharge of selected rivers of Africa. Studies and Reports in Hydrology No. 52. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. 166 pp.
USGS. (1983). National water summary - hydrologic events and issues. Water Supply Paper 2250. Washington, DC, US Geological Survey.
USWRC. (1968). The nation’s water resources. Washington, DC, Water Resources Council, US Gov. Print. Office.
Wigley, T.M.L., (2002). Modeling climate change under no-policy and policy emissions
pathways. Working Party on Global and Structural Policies, OECD Workshop on the
Benefits of Climate Policy: Improving Information for Policy Makers. OECD, Paris, 32p (http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/33/13/2489543.pdf, accessed July 1, 2007).
Winstanley, D., Angel, J.A., Changnon, S.A., Knapp, H.V., Kunkel, K.E., Palecki, M.A., Scott, R.W. & Wehrmann, H.A. (2006). The water cycle and water budgets in Illinois: A framework for drought and water-supply planning. Illinois State Water Survey,
Champaign, IL. I/EM 2006-02, 114 p.